BC Stone, Sand & Gravel Association
Where is Aggregate Used ?
Aggregate is produced in or near most every city and town in Canada and the United States.
Annual per capita consumption of aggregate is about 10 to 15 tons in Canada and 10 tons in the United States.
The industry is comprised of 3 main sectors; construction sand and gravel, industrial sand and gravel,
and crushed rock. Crushed stone and sand and gravel are most often used by the construction industry.
Source: Construction Aggregates: National And Regional Trends by R.D. Irvine and G.O. Vagt, Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, Ontario - BC Aggregate Forum
U.S. Consumption figures from California Study of aggregates use and demand.
Aggregates are produced for a number of reasons:
- concrete aggregates,
- road base and coverings and road stabilization,
- asphaltic concrete aggregates and other bituminous mixtures,
- construction fill,
- concrete products, such as blocks, bricks, pipes, etc.,
- plaster and gunite sands,
- snow and ice control,
- railroad ballast,
- roofing granules,
- other miscellaneous uses.
The general public collectively consume the greatest amount of aggregate through government projects and
government responsibilities. Public works utilize up to 65% to 70% of all aggregate in the construction and maintenance
of roads and through the construction of larger buildings such as schools, hospitals, and administration buildings.
The following chart puts some perspective on aggregates use in everyday life.
|Aggregate Usage Estimates||Metric Tonnes|
|Typical tandem axle truck capacity|| 15|
|Average 1,500-square-foot home, when considering its proportional share of new streets, schools, churches, municipal construction projects and shopping centers||330|
|Single family residential - Vancouver||83|
|Single family residential - Fraser Valley||166|
|Six room house||91|
|Low rise multifamily Development - PER UNIT||20|
|Commercial building - PER 93 m2 (1,000 ft2)||63|
|School or hospital||14,000|
|Road and service construction per kilometre (2 lane)||18,500|
|4 lane US highway per 1.6 kilometres (1 mile) - (Meador, Layher 1998)||60,000|
|Rehabilitation of existing roadways, per kilometre||40 to 320|
Crushed aggregate remains the main competitor for sand and gravel, and competition for crushed
rock includes combinations of the following products (USGS):
- Geotextiles both an ally and a competitor
- Soil Cement
- Lime Stabilized Soil
- Rubblized Portland Cement Concrete (PCC) Pavement
- Crack and Seat PCC Pavement
- Recycled or Virgin Asphalt as Base
- Construction and Demolition Waste as Base